Barriers to OP

Organisational psychotherapy, much like individual therapy, offers an avenue for addressing inherent issues and fostering growth. However, similar to individuals who resist therapy, organisations often shy away from organisational psychotherapy due to reasons that mirror individual hesitations.

One of the main barriers is the stigma associated with seeking help. Just as individuals may be apprehensive about perceived judgments when attending therapy, organisations often fear potential negative repercussions in public image. Acknowledging a need for organisational psychotherapy can be perceived as admitting that the organisation has deep-seated issues, a message many firms are reluctant to send to stakeholders.

Another significant obstacle is fear of change. People often resist therapy because they fear it might bring them to confront uncomfortable truths and provoke significant personal change. Similarly, organisations are typically resistant to substantial shifts that can disrupt established patterns, even when such change may be beneficial.

Finally, organisations, much like individuals, may lack insight into their problems or may underestimate the potential benefits of therapy. They may be locked into a particular mindset, denying the existence of an issue just as a person might not acknowledge their personal problems.

Just as these barriers can be overcome in individual therapy, they can also be addressed in organisational psychotherapy, but it requires a willingness to open up to the need for change and improvement.

Management Practices and Collective Psyches

At a glance, management practices seem to emerge from a combination of managerial experiences, organisational traditions, business school teachings, and so on. But if we delve deeper, we’ll find that these practices are rooted in the underlying assumptions and beliefs of managers and their colleagues. This deeper layer, what we as organisational psychotherapists term as the ‘collective psyche’ of the organisation, plays a crucial role in shaping its management practices, and in selecting which practices apply.

This collective psyche, composed of the organisation’s shared assumptions and beliefs, acts as the foundation for how an organisation operates and makes decisions. It’s not just about what is explicitly taught or conveyed; it’s the unwritten, unspoken ‘truths’ that permeate the organisation. It’s about how employees perceive the organisation’s goals, how they view their roles within the business, and what they believe to be the ‘right’ way to do things.

For instance, an organisation that collectively values innovation will likely adopt management practices that promote creativity and risk-taking. Conversely, an organisation that holds conservative beliefs may implement more risk-averse and hierarchical management approaches.

These assumptions and beliefs also influence how an organisation reacts to challenges and changes. The collective psyche can either facilitate adaptability and resilience, or it can lead to resistance and rigidity.

It’s important to note, however, that this collective psyche isn’t static. It evolves over time, shaped by experiences, leadership, external influences, and even the individual beliefs of employees. It’s a complex and dynamic construct, deeply interwoven with the fabric of an organisation’s culture.

Thus, while we may see management practices as coming from experience, training, and tradition, they fundamentally spring from the organisation’s collective psyche – its shared assumptions and beliefs. This understanding highlights the importance of aligning management practices with the collective psyche, as well as nurturing a healthy, positive collective psyche within an organisation.

It also explains the key benefit of #OrganisationalPsychotherapy – enabling organisations to surface and reflect on their all to often submerged collective psyche.

Drucker On The Collective Memeplex

Peter Drucker, one of the most influential management thinkers of the 20th century, had a lot to say about collective assumptions and beliefs in business. In his opinion, these elements are often deeply foundational to an organisation’s culture, influencing its strategy, operations and performance.

Drucker argued that the assumptions and beliefs shaping a business’s actions aren’t always explicit. They’re often unconscious, becoming part of the organisation’s culture. He referred to these implicit beliefs as the “theory of the business”. According to him, every organisation, whether it knows it or not, operates on such a theory.

For Drucker, this theory was essentially a set of assumptions about what a company gets paid for. It’s about understanding the reality of the business, its markets, its customers, its core competencies, and its societal role. These assumptions guide behaviour, decisions, and the direction of the organisation. They set boundaries and establish guidelines within which decisions are made and actions are taken.

However, Drucker warned of the dangers of clinging too tightly to these assumptions. He believed that businesses get into trouble when their environments shift but their theories of the business don’t. This, he argued, is why innovation and ongoing analysis are critical. Companies must continually question their assumptions, keeping them in line with changing realities.

He also believed that it’s important for these collective assumptions and beliefs to be shared across the organisation. If employees don’t understand or don’t buy into these beliefs, there’s likely to be confusion, inefficiency, and a lack of coordination. This can result in subpar performance.

In sum, for Drucker, collective assumptions and beliefs play a crucial role in shaping an organisation’s actions and performance. However, businesses must also be ready to challenge and adapt these assumptions as conditions change, ensuring that their theory of the business remains relevant and effective.

Organisational Culture – Myths And Realities

“Organisational culture thrives not on shared values, but on shared assumptions and beliefs.”

This provocative statement challenges the traditional concept of organisational culture and urges us to consider the power of shared assumptions and beliefs in sculpting an organisation’s culture.

Undoubtedly, shared values, often glorified as the linchpin of organisational culture, capture public attention. However, they tend to merely reflect an organisation’s surface level, its external face. What Argyris refers to as “espoused theories” – as contrasted with “theories-in-use”.

Espoused (shared) values represent an organisation’s idealised image, often disconnected from the daily operations and attitudes.

In contrast, shared assumptions and beliefs serve as the bedrock of organisational culture, shaping how members perceive, think, and feel about the organisation.

These shared assumptions and beliefs, often unspoken and unconscious, influence the very DNA of an organisation. They are deeply embedded within the organisation’s psyche and dictate how members interact, respond to challenges, make decisions, and even perceive success. For instance, an organisation might unconsciously assume that hierarchy determines decision-making power. This underlying belief, despite any officially stated value of employee empowerment, would guide behaviors more effectively, subtly shaping the real culture of the organisation.

A shift in focus towards shared assumptions and beliefs allows us to better understand and influence organisational culture. Acknowledging their influence demands an examination of the deep, often unseen, layers of an organisation’s culture. It’s through this understanding that an organisation can align its actions with its aspirations, driving more authentic, powerful cultural transformations.

Summing up, “shared values” fail to penetrate the complex, dynamic, and profound realm of organisational culture. Instead, it’s the shared assumptions and beliefs that govern the way organisations truly operate, underpinning the entirety of an organisation’s culture.

Hence Organisational Psychotherapy.


A Quick Dive into Organisational Psychotherapy

💡 Are you tired of watching your people struggle with collaboration and communication? Discover the groundbreaking approach of organisation psychotherapy, where the power of self-reflection and shared beliefs can unlock your people’s true potential, transforming your business into a thriving and harmonious powerhouse.

➡ Organisation psychotherapy is an approach that helps businesses and their people navigate complex challenges by delving into shared assumptions and beliefs. It’s a journey that encourages open communication and fosters self-reflection to create a healthier, more effective and productive work environment.

In this process, a skilled facilitator accompanies the organisation, guiding them through thought-provoking discussions, enabling them to surface any unconscious or unexamined beliefs that may be hindering their progress. By shedding light on these underlying assumptions, the organisation can then reflect upon them and determine if they’re helping or hindering the growth of the business.

It’s important to note that this isn’t a one-size-fits-all solution; it’s a tailored experience that adapts to each organisation’s unique culture and circumstances. The facilitator works closely with the company’s people to create a safe and trusting environment, ensuring that everyone feels heard and respected.

Organisation psychotherapy is all about fostering honest conversations and nurturing self-awareness. By addressing shared beliefs and assumptions, people can better understand each other’s perspectives, and ultimately, work more effectively together. It’s an empowering journey that encourages everyone involved to take responsibility for their role in the organisation’s success.

In summary, organisation psychotherapy is a transformative process that accompanies businesses and their people in surfacing and reflecting on their shared assumptions and beliefs. By doing so, they can cultivate a more harmonious and productive work environment, paving the way for long-lasting success.


A Generic Conference Submission On Organisational Psychotherapy


Organisational Psychotherapy: Uncovering the Power of Shared Assumptions and Beliefs in Culture Change


Organisational psychotherapy is an emerging discipline that applies the principles and practices of psychotherapy to organisational contexts. It is a powerful tool for cultural transformation, as it recognises the role of shared assumptions and beliefs in shaping organisational culture. In this session, we will explore the principles and practices of organisational psychotherapy and how they can help organisations drive meaningful change.

We will begin by discussing the importance of shared assumptions and beliefs in shaping organisational culture. These assumptions and beliefs are often invisible, yet they determine the norms, values, and behaviours of the organisation. We will explore how these assumptions and beliefs can be uncovered through the use of psychotherapeutic techniques such as observation, reflection, and inquiry.

We will then introduce the principles and practices of organisational psychotherapy and how they can help organisations address cultural challenges. This includes creating a safe and supportive environment for individuals to express themselves, developing a shared understanding of the organisation’s culture, and co-creating a vision for cultural transformation. We will also discuss how organisational psychotherapy can help organisations identify and address the root causes of cultural challenges, rather than merely treating the symptoms.

Through case studies and real-life examples, we will demonstrate how organisational psychotherapy has helped organisations drive meaningful change. We will highlight the importance of cultural transformation in the context of the current business landscape, where organisations need to be agile, innovative, and resilient to thrive.

In conclusion, this session will provide attendees with an understanding of the principles and practices of organisational psychotherapy and how they can help organisations drive cultural transformation. We will explore the power of shared assumptions and beliefs in shaping organisational culture and demonstrate how these can be uncovered and transformed through the use of psychotherapeutic techniques. Attendees will leave with practical insights and tools for driving meaningful cultural change within their organisations, change which will accelerate their adoption of more effective ideas, methods and practices.

Transforming Our View of People: From Lazy and Untrustworthy to Inspired and Empowered!

I often use the example of Theory X vs Theory Y to illustrate how we can shift a relative ineffective business meme (treating people as lazy and untrustworthy) to a relatively more effective meme (giving people a good job to do and trusting them to get on with it). The concept of Theory X and Theory Y was first introduced by Douglas McGregor in his book “The Human Side of Enterprise” published in 1960.

Theory X is a negative view of workers and assumes that they are inherently lazy and untrustworthy, and therefore, must be tightly controlled and motivated through fear, punishment, and extrinsic rewards. On the other hand, Theory Y views workers as responsible and trustworthy, and assumes that they will naturally be motivated and productive if given the opportunity to take ownership of their work and make decisions.

The shift from Theory X to Theory Y is not just a matter of changing one’s perspective, but it also requires a fundamental change in the way businesses are run. In a Theory X environment, the management assumes a top-down approach, where the manager makes all decisions and workers are expected to follow them. In a Theory Y environment, the management assumes a participative approach, where workers are involved in decision-making, given autonomy, and provided with challenging work that they find meaningful.

Transitioning to Theory Y can lead to a number of positive outcomes for businesses. Firstly, it can lead to higher levels of employee engagement and motivation, which in turn can result in improved performance and productivity. Secondly, it can foster a more positive and collaborative work environment, which can lead to increased innovation, creativity, and problem-solving. Finally, it can also lead to higher levels of employee retention and lower levels of turnover, as workers are more likely to stay with an organisation within which they feel valued and respected.

However, making the shift from Theory X to Theory Y is rarely easy, as it requires a significant change in the way businesses are run. It requires a change in the leadership style, culture, and processes, as well as a change in the mindset of the workers. It also requires a change in the way rewards and incentives are structured, as the traditional carrot-and-stick approach will not be effective in a Theory Y environment.

In conclusion, the shift from Theory X to Theory Y is a positive change that can lead to improved performance, productivity, and engagement in the workplace. It requires a fundamental change in the way businesses are run and the way workers are treated, but the benefits make it well worth the effort.

Theory-X vs Y is just one of over seventy business memes explored in my books:


Getting Upstream

When we consider change, we often overlook the context for that change, and the necessity to change the context to facilitate the change(s) we have in mind.

Shifting Left

For example, in the context of improving testing, the testing community invites us to “shift left”; to shift our focus to earlier phases of software delivery – to the left, in the stream of software delivery activities – where leverage is assumed to be greater. In other words, getting upstream of where testing activities have traditionally taken place.

The Broader Context

In a broader context, that of software delivery more generally, getting upstream means considering the context in which software delivery takes place.

What is this context? For me, as an organisational psychotherapist, it’s about the collective assumptions and beliefs of the host organisation. Collective assumptions and beliefs – or culture – that constrain how the work works.

Root of Failure

I have yet to see an approach to software delivery that considers this wider context, let alone provides a means to address these broader contextual issues. I attribute most of the failures of e.g. Waterfall, Agile, etc. to this absence of consideration for context.

Put another way, approaches to software delivery that fail to cater to the (thorny) issues of adoption are about as useful as chocolate teapot in the Sahara. This idea seems alien to all the methodologists I know of.

Organisational Psychotherapy

Organisational Psychotherapy provided just such a means. It invites folks considering changes, changes to the way they approach software delivery, to consider the broader context as an integral part of the change. Through dialogue, surfacing these broader contextual issues and inviting shared reflection on them, organisations considering change can get upstream of the changes under consideration.

(You can find out more about Organisational Psychotherapy and what “Getting Upstream” of the software delivery challeng looks like in my books (Marshall 2018, Marshall 2021, Marshall 2021).

As Einstein observed:

“No problem can be solved from the same level of consciousness that created it.”

~Albert Einstein

I like to think he was talking about getting upstream of the immediate problem.

– Bob

Further Reading

Marshall, R.W. (2021). Quintessence: An Acme for Software Development Organisations. [online] Falling Blossoms (LeanPub). Available at: [Accessed 6 Jul 2022].
Marshall, R.W. (2021). Memeology: Surfacing And Reflecting On The Organisation’s Collective Assumptions And Beliefs. [online] Falling Blossoms (LeanPub). Available at: [Accessed 6 Jul 2022].
Marshall, R.W. (2018). Hearts over Diamonds: Serving Business and Society Through Organisational Psychotherapy. [online] leanpub.comFalling Blossoms (LeanPub). Available at: [Accessed 6 Jul 2022].
Marshall, R.W. (2021). Organisational Psychotherapy Bundle 1. [online] Leanpub. Available at: [Accessed 6 Jul. 2022].

The Future Of Software Delivery

Are you curious about how software will get written and delivered in the future? When all the Agile malarkey has faded away?

About your career and what skills and abilities will be in demand in a few years’ time?

Take a look at my book “Quintessence“ for a detailed road map of what the future of software delivery looks like.

My book “Memeology” describes in detail how organisations can make this future theirs, starting today.

And “Hearts Over DIamonds” sets out the foundations for Organisational Psychotherapy – the core principles for our Quintessential future.

Or read the whole series, and get a deep understanding of the role of Organisational Psychotherapy in businesses of the future.

– Bob

Further Reading

Marshall, R.W. (2021). Quintessence: An Acme for Software Development Organisations. [online] Falling Blossoms (LeanPub). Available at: [Accessed 12 Jun 2022].
Marshall, R.W. (2021). Memeology: Surfacing And Reflecting On The Organisation’s Collective Assumptions And Beliefs. [online] Falling Blossoms (LeanPub). Available at: [Accessed 12 Jun 2022].
Marshall, R.W. (2018). Hearts over Diamonds: Serving Business and Society Through Organisational Psychotherapy. [online] leanpub.comFalling Blossoms (LeanPub). Available at: [Accessed 12 Jun 2022].

Organisational Transformation Starts With Individual Transformation

Organisational transformation starts with the individual but as they change they can run into organisational barriers and resistance to change. Similarly if the organisation institutes changes without helping people change their own understanding and views those people resist the changes in the organisation.

~ Barbara Lawton

Deming emphasised that organisational tranformation and change must start with individuals changing their own personal assumptions and beliefs. And in doing so, these individuals will likely fall foul of the organisation’s collective assumptions and beliefs (the collective psyche).

What better argument could there be for the benefits of Organisational Psychotherapy?

And what better explanation for why it’s soooo hard?

– Bob

Further Reading

Marshall, R.W. (2018). Hearts over Diamonds: Serving Business and Society Through Organisational Psychotherapy. [online] leanpub.comFalling Blossoms (LeanPub). Available at: [Accessed 08 Jun 2022].

Lawton, B. (n.d.). 1993-03 Leading The Transformation Process. [online] Available at: [Accessed 8 Jun. 2022].

The System Is Unethical

Or at least, it’s “the system” that sits at the root of the unethical behaviours costing software delivery organisations £££millions annually. And it’s the culture of an organisation that defines that system.

Many years ago I wrote a White Paper titled “All Executives Are Unethical”. This paper riffed on a theme from Seth Godin – “All Marketers are Liars”. And channeled the ethical arguments of William Kingdon Clifford:

…whatever someone chooses to believe cannot be exempt from the ethical judgement of others.

In the aforementioned White Paper, I spoke of the ethics of executives, and in particular the folks that make the decisions about committing to improvements (or maintaining the status quo) in software delivery.

It’s been my experience over the course of thirty-plus years, that said executives act as if they believe their software delivery capability has little need, or scope, for improvement. Acting as if investing in improving said capability has little to no payback, and little to no impact on the organisation’ top line or bottom line.

It’s The System

Bill Deming famously wrote:

The fact is that the system that people work in and the interaction with people may account for 90 or 95 percent of performance.

~ W.E. Deming quoted in Scholtes, PR 1998 ‘The leader’s handbook: making things happen, getting things done’ McGraw-Hill, London p 296

Some readers of my aforementioned White Paper may have inferred I was criticising individual executives for their shortfall in ethics. Not at all. These folks work in “systems” as much as everyone else. It’s the system that drives their behaviours. Behaviours such as:

  • Failing to dig into the effectiveness of their organisation’s software delivery capabilities.
  • Indifference to the waste involved (wasted time, money, opportunities, human potential,…).
  • Ignorance of just how much more effective things could be, with e.g. a change in perspective.
  • Bravado and denial when questioned about such matters.

And it’s not limited to executives. Most advisors and practitioners (coaches, developers, middle managers, etc.) are equally ignorant, indifferent, flippant and slow to inquire.

Organisational Psychotherapy – and in particular, Memeology – offers a means to being addressing the shortcomings of the system, and thus bring about changes in folks’ behaviours.

– Bob

Further Reading

Marshall, R.W. (2021). All Agilists Are Unethical. [online] Think Different. Available at: [Accessed 30 May 2022].
Seddon, J. (2015). 95% of Performance Is Governed By The System. [online] Vanguard Consulting Ltd. Available at: [Accessed 30 May 2022].

Want to get ahead of your competetion? Want to get in on the ground floor of the predominant approach to software delivery in the next twenty years (and more)? Simply read my latest book “Quintessence“. Those who’ve already read it say they love it to bits. 🙂

Or read the whole series, and get a deep understanding of the role of Organisational Psychotherapy in businesses of the future.

Further Reading

Marshall, R.W. (2021). Quintessence: An Acme for Software Development Organisations. [online] Falling Blossoms (LeanPub). Available at: [Accessed 20 May 2022].
Marshall, R.W. (2021). Memeology: Surfacing And Reflecting On The Organisation’s Collective Assumptions And Beliefs. [online] Falling Blossoms (LeanPub). Available at: [Accessed 20 May 2022].
Marshall, R.W. (2018). Hearts over Diamonds: Serving Business and Society Through Organisational Psychotherapy. [online] leanpub.comFalling Blossoms (LeanPub). Available at: [Accessed 20 May 2022].


Is it really beyond the bounds of credibility to imagine that we could all be twice, three times, four times better at delivering software? The data’s there (ISBSG). The real-world results and exemplars are there (Familiar, not least). The road-map, blue-print or manual is there (Quintessence). The support required to build the necessary environment is there (Hearts over Diamonds, Memeology, Organisational Psychotherapy).

So what’s holding back our industry, our software delivery organisations? Indifference? Ignorance? Learned helplessness? Lack of incentives? Vested interests? Fear? Something else?

I’m sure I don’t know the exact nature of the blocker*.  But it’s clear that there’s blockers.

– Bob

*I have my suspicions. But it seems that no one wants to even talk about it.


As a manager, what’s more important to you? The nature of your present role, or the success of the company?

Put another way: If the ongoing success of the company required your role to change, would you support or resist that change? Can you even talk franklly about the issue?


Management, Net-Net

I’ve written some number of posts already describing the incompatibilities between traditonal, hierarchical, command-and-control management (THCM)  and collaborative knowledge work (CKW). I’ve written that we can have one or the other, but not both.

I note the absence of any signs that THCM is being scrutinised anew – excepting from a few quarters such as Prof Gary Hamel with Humanocracy, and Frederic Laloux with Reinventing Organisations. Even though effective CKW becomes ever more widespread. Not to mention essential to businesses and society both.

Let’s assume for the sake of this partticular post that THCM afforts organisations and societies some real benefits. I personally have my doubts. but lets go with it. Similarly, let’s also assume that CKW also affors some real benefits. For what it’s worth you can probably guess my personal take on that assumption.

The Economic Question

So here’s the (economic*) question: Which affords the greater benefits to organisations: THCM or CKW, net-net?

If we geared how organisationa are run in line with optimising for effective CKW – which would mean downplaying, replacing or abandoning THCM – would these organisations be better off, produce better (finanical, social, etc.) results?

Conversely, does THCM – with the inevitable negative consequences for effective CKW, result in higher profits, margins, and other measures of success (financial and otherwise)?

I’d love to hear your take on this question.

– Bob

*This question kinda assumes organisations are primarily economic entities with success measured in financial and economic terms. I suggest this is actually just a big lie.

First Step Towards Quintessence

Taking a look at the idea of Quintessence can seem overwhelmingly daunting. Changing the culture of a whole organisation? Shifting assumptions and beliefs of an entire workforce, managers and executives included? Wow. Some herculean task?

Formidable Challenge

The challenge can seem truly formidable. Yet the benefits look appealing. 

How to take that first step? What is the most useful and reassuring first step?

The journey of a thousand miles begins with a single step.

~ Lao Tzu

Surfacing And Reflecting

The clue is on the cover of my second book, “Memeology“. The subtitle reads

Surfacing and reflecting on the organisation’s collective assumptions and beliefs.

I find a useful first step is talking with peers. And listening to what they have to say. Discovering if there’s an appetite for such surfacing and reflecting. Uncovering their challenges of the moment, and sounding out potential allies. Persuasion comes later, if at all.

The status quo has a powerful grip on busy people. It’s easy to dismiss calls for change in the midst of daily stressors such as fire-fighting and chasing targets.


What’s the timbre of dialogue in your organisation? Progressive or regressive? Inviting or dismissive? What timbre might best suit the kinds of dialogue implied by Quintessence? How might y’all affect that timbre? And could you use some help with that?

Chatting Is The First Step

To recap – simple chatting with friends, neighbours, peers and colleagues can be the vital first step. And “Alien Tech” can sometimes serve as an icebreaker, if you feel you need one.

– Bob


Alien Tech: What Is It?


Alien tech power at one’s fingertips

At The Quintessential Group, our motto is “Alien Tech for Human Beings”.

What do we mean by “Alien Tech”?

Dictionary Definitions

Let’s take a look at the dictionary:

Technology noun
\ tech·​nol·​o·​gy | \ tek-ˈnä-lə-jē \

Definition of technology

  1. a: The practical application of knowledge especially in a particular area
    // medical technology
    b: A capability given by the practical application of knowledge
    // a car’s fuel-saving technology
  2. A manner of accomplishing a task especially using technical processes, methods, or knowledge
    // new technologies for information storage
  3. The specialised aspects of a particular field of endeavour
    // educational technology

Alien adjective
\ ˈā-lē-ən, ˈāl-yən \

Definition of alien

  1. a: Belonging or relating to another person, place, or thing: Strange
    // an alien environment
    b:Relating, belonging, or owing allegiance to another country or government: Foreign
    // alien residents
    c: [Exotic sense]
    // alien plants
    d: Coming from another world: Extraterrestrial
    // alien beings
    // an alien spaceship
    // When it comes to knowing what alien life forms might be like, we don’t have any idea
    ~ Kate Shuster
  2. Differing in nature or character typically to the point of incompatibility
    // ideas alien to democracy

Our Definitions

So, by the above dictionary definitions, we can define “Alien Tech” (Alien Technology) as:

capability given by the practical application of knowledge, where that knowledge is strange, or seeming as if coming from another world.

Put another way, and closer to our quintessential usage:

An approach to running collaborative knowledge work businesses that differs in nature or character from the norm, typically to the point of incompatibility.

When it comes to relating to alien ideas, most folks just don’t know where to start.

~ FlowChainSensei

In Practice

What does “Alien Tech” mean in practice?

It means running a business, in our caseThe Quintessential Group, based on assumptions and beliefs incompatible with typical businesses. Assumptions and beliefs which lead to levels of software delivery excellence unobtainable by other means. We attend to folks’s needs in ways totally alien to those immersed in traditonal management mythos. For those clients that judge by results, this is little more than a curiousity, until the question of “how do they do that?” comes up.

– Bob

Further Reading

Marshall, R. W. (2015). Aliens. [online] Think Different. Available at: [Accessed 8 May 2022].
Marshall, R. W. (2018). Alien Tech Alien Tropes. [online] Think Different. Available at: [Accessed 8 May 2022].
Marshall, R. W. (2018). Some Alien Tropes. [online] Think Different. Available at: [Accessed 8 May 2022].

There are many people who, whilst being highly competent and able as individuals, will undermine and negate all attempts to build an effective team / unit / capability.

But you don’t have to hire them. And if you inherit one, you can fire or redeploy him or her – always assuming the higher-ups choose to value the relative importance of community, esprit de corps and the social dynamic over individual skills.

What do you and your culture value more – going far together or going fast alone?


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